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General Articles

Bergslien, E.T. (2006) Teaching to Avoid the "CSI Effect." Keeping the Science in Forensic Science. Journal of Chemical Education, 83(5), 690-691.

Donnelly, L. J. (2003) The applications of forensic geology to help the police solve crimes. European Geologist December: 8–12.

Donnelly, L. J. (2011) The Renaissance in Forensic Geology. Teaching Earth Sciences. Magazine of the Earth Science Teachers' Association (ESTA), 36(1), 46-52.

Donnelly, L. J. (2010) The role of geoforensics in policing and law enforcement. Emergency Global Barclay media Limited, January 2010, 19-22.

Makarushka, Mary (2012) Got a Crime to Solve? Call in the Soil Scientists. Soil Horizons. 53 (5). doi:10.2136/sh2012-53-5-lf https://www.soils.org/publications/sh/articles/53/5/3

Marumo, Yoshiteru (2001) Forensic Examination of Soil Evidence (a review) 13th INTERPOL Forensic Science Symposium, Lyon, France, October 16-19 2001. (Click on Blue "Review" link to download pdf file from site)

Murray, Raymond C. (2005) Collecting Crime Evidence from the Earth. Geotimes, January, 2005. American Geological Institute.

Pirrie, D., Donnelly, L.J., Rollinson, G.K., Butcher, A.R., Dawson, L.A. & Pirrie, H.A. (2013) Forensic geology at the International School Science Fair. Geology Today Vol. 29, No. 6, November–December 2013. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, The Geologists’ Association & The Geological Society of London. Data from this project is now available here

Rapp, J. S. (1987) Forensic geology and a Colusa County murder. California Geology 40: 147–53.

Sugit, Ritsuko; Yoshida, Hiroaki and Fukushima, Hirofumi (2010) Forensic Geology Review: 2007 to 2009 16th International Forensic Science Symposium Lyon, France, October 5-8 2010. (pdf file)



Bergslien, Elisa T. An Introduction to Forensic Geoscience (Google Books)

Byers, S. N. (2005) Introduction to Forensic Anthropology: A textbook, 2nd edn. Pearson Education, Boston.

Coyle, H.M. (2005) Forensic Botany: Principles and Applications to Criminal Casework. CRC Press, Boca Rayon, FL.

Di Maggio, R. M., Matteo Barone, P., Pettinelli, E., Mattei, M., Lauro, S., Banchelli, A. (2013) Geologia Forense. Introduzione alle geoscienze applicate alle indagini giudiziarie. Dario Flaccovio Editore. Italia. (Amazon)

Dupras, T.L., Schultz, J.J., Wheeler, S.M. and Williams, L.J. (2006) Forensic Recovery of Human Remains: Archaeological Approaches. CRC Press, Boca Rayon, FL.

Gradusova, O., Nesterina, E., Peleneva, M. (2014) Atlas of exotic, anthropogenic and extraneous particles in soil. Rusian Federal Centre of Forensic Science, Ministry of Justice, Moscow (in Russian) (pending).

Hunter, J. and Cox, M. (2005) Forensic Archaeology: Advances in Theory and Practice. Routledge, New York, NY.

Murray, Raymond C. Evidence from the Earth: Forensic Geology and Criminal Investigation (Google Books)

Pirrie, D., Ruffell, A., Dawson, L. (2013) SP384:Environmental Geoforensics. Geological Society of London Special Publication, 384, pp273. Publication Flyer

Pye, Kenneth Geological and Soil Evidence: Forensic Applications (Google Books)

Pye, Kenneth and Croft, Debra J. Forensic Geoscience: Principles, Techniques and Applications, Geological Society of London (Google Books)

Ritz, Karl; Dawson, Lorna and Miller, David Criminal and Environmental Soil Forensics (Google Books)

Ruffell, Alastair and McKinley, Jennifer Geoforensics (Wiley)

Tibbett, Mark and Carter, David O. Soil Analysis in Forensic Taphonomy: Chemical and Biological Effects of Buried Human Remains (Google Books)

Wheeler, B.P. and Wilson, L.J. (2008) Practical Forensic Microscopy: A Laboratory Manual. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, England.



Anon (2006) Practice advice on search management and procedures. In: M. Harrison, C. Hedges, and C. Sims (eds), National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA), London

Benson, R. C., Glaccum, R., and Noel, M. (1983) Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Buried Wastes and Waste Migrations. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Contract No. 68-03-3050, National Water Well Association, Worthington, OH.

Blundell, A., Dearing, J. A., Boyle, J. F., and Hannam, J. A. (2009) Controlling factors for the spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility across England and Wales. Earth Science Reviews 95: 158–88.

Buck, S. C. (2003) Searching for graves using geophysical technology: Field tests with ground penetrating radar, magnetometry, and electrical resistivity. Journal of Forensic Sciences 48(1): 5–11.

Burger, H. R., Sheehan, A. F., and Jones, C. H. (2006) Introduction to Applied Geophysics: Exploring the shallow subsurface. W. W. Norton & Co, New York.

Cablk, M.E. & Sagebiel, J.C. (2011) Field capability of dogs to locate individual human teeth. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56, 1018-24.

Curran, A., Prada, P.A. & Furton, K.G. (2010) Canine human scent identifications with post-blast debris collected from improvised explosive devices. Forensic Science International, 199, 103-108.

Davenport, G. C. (2001) Remote sensing applications in forensic investigations. Historical Archaeology 35(1): 87–100.

Donnelly, L. J. (2002) Finding the silent witness. Geoscientist 12(5): 16–17.

Donnelly, L. J. (2009) The Geological Search for a Homicide Grave. The Investigator, July/August 2009, 42-49.

Donnelly, L. J., Grime, M., and Harrison, M. (2013) Interpretation of Victim Recovery Dog (VRD) Responses During Ground Searches for Homicide Graves and the Potential Influences of Geology, Hydrogeology, Peat Stratigraphy and Barometric Pressure Fluctuations. IUGS-IFG RFCFS, Moscow, 22 October 2013, Booklet of Abstracts, 16-17 (in English), 18-19 (in Russian).

Donnelly, L. J. & Harrison M. (2010) Development of geoforensic strategy & methodology to search the ground for an unmarked burial or concealed object. Emergency Global Barclay media Limited, July 2010, 30-35.

Donnelly, L. and Harrison, M. (2011) Geomorphological and geoforensic interpretation of maps, aerial imagery, conditions of diggability and the colour coded RAG prioritisation system in searches for criminal burials. Presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Criminal and Environmental Soil Forensics, 2–4 November (2010), Long Beach, California. Geological Society of London.

France, D. L., Griffin, T. J., Swanburg, J. G. et al. (1992) A multidisciplinary approach to the detection of clandestine graves. Journal of Forensic Sciences 37(6): 1445–58.

Harrison, M. and Donnelly, L. J. (2008) Buried homicide victims: Applied geoforensics in search to locate strategies. Journal of Homicide and Major Incident Investigations. Produced on behalf of the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) Homicide Working Group, by the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA).

Hunter, J. and Cox, M. (eds) (2005) Forensic Archaeology: Advances in theory and practice. Routledge, New York.

Hunter, J., Roberts, C., and Martin, A. (1996) Studies in Crime: An introduction to forensic archaeology. B. T. Batsford, London.

Jervis, J. R., Pringle, J. K., and Tuckwell, G. W. (2009) Time-lapse resistivity surveys over simulated clandestine graves. Forensic Science International 192: 2–13.

Jezierski, T. et al. 2012. Do trained dogs discriminate individual body odors of women better than those of men? Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57, 647-653.

Killam, E. W. (1990) The Detection of Human Remains. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IL.

Komar, D. 1999. The use of cadaver dogs in locating scattered, scavenged human remains: preliminary field test results. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 44, 405-408.

Lasseter, A.E., Jacobi, K.P., Farley, R. & Hensel, L. 2003. Cadaver dog and handler team capabilities in the recovery of buried human remains in the SE US. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 48, 1-5.

Lit, L. & Crawford, C.A. 2006. Effects of training paradigms on search dog performance. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 98, 277-292.

Nobes, D. C. (2000) The search for “Yvonne”: A case example of the delineation of a grave using near-surface geophysical methods. Journal of Forensic Sciences 45(3): 715–721.

Oseterhelweg, L. 2008. Cadaver dogs – a study on detection of contaminated carpet squares. Forensic Science International, 174, 35-9.

Pringle, J. K., Jervis, J., Cassella, J. P., and Cassidy, N. J. (2008) Time-lapse geophysical investigations over a simulated urban grave. Journal of Forensic Science 53(6): 1405–16.

Rebmann, A., David, E. & Sorg, M.H. 2000. Cadaver Dog Handbook: Forensic training and Tactics for the Recovery of Human Remains, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Rooney, N.J., Bradshaw, J.W.S., Almey, H. 2004a. Attributes of specialist search dogs – a questionnaire survey of UK dog handlers and trainers. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 49, 300-306.

Rooney, N.J. & Bradshaw, J.W.S. 2004. Breed and sex differences in the behavioural attributes of specialist search dogs – a questionnaire survey of trainers and handlers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 86, 123-135.

Ruffell, A. (2005) Searching for the I.R.A. Disappeared: Ground-penetrating radar investigation of a churchyard burial site, Northern Ireland. Journal of Forensic Sciences 50: 1430–1435.

Ruffell, A. (2006) Under-water scene investigation using ground penetrating radar (GPR) in the search for a sunken jet ski, Northern Ireland. Science and Justice 46(4): 221–30.

Schoon, G.A.A. 2005. The effect of the ageing of crime scene objects on the results of scent identification line-ups using trained dogs. Forensic Science International, 147, 43-47.

Sorg, H.M. et al. 1998. Cadaver dogs, taphonomy and PMI in the northeast. In: Reichs, K. (ed.), Forensic osteology: advances in the identification of human remains. CC Thomas, Springfield, 120-144.




Brown, A. G. (2006) The use of forensic botany and geology in war crime investigation in NE Bosnia. Forensic Science International 163: 204–10.

Bull, P. A. and Morgan, R. M. (2007 ) Sediment Fingerprints: A forensic technique using quartz sand grains. A response. Science and Justice 47(3): 141–4

Chaperlin, K. and Howarth, P. S. (1983) Soil comparison by the density gradient method: A review and evaluation. Forensic Science International 23: 161–77.

Fitzpatrick, F. and Thornton, J. I. (1975) Forensic science characterization of sand. Journal of Forensic Sciences 20(3): 460–475.

Fitzpatrick R.W. and Raven M.D. (2012) How Pedology and mineralogy helped solve a double murder case: Using forensics to inspire future generations of soil scientists. Soil Horizons. 53 (5). doi:10.2136/sh12-05-0016. https://www.soils.org/publications/sh/articles/53/5/14

Fitzpatrick R.W. (2011) Getting the dirt: The value of soil in criminal investigations. Gazette, Vol. 73, No 1, pp. 22-23. A Royal Canadian Mounted Police Publication.

Fitzpatrick R.W. (2009) Soil: Forensic Analysis. In Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science (Editors-In-Chief: A Jamieson and A Moenssens). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom. pp. 2377-2388.

Graves, W. J. (1979) A mineralogical soil classification technique for the forensic scientist. Journal of Forensic Sciences 24: 323–38.

Janssen, D. W., Ruhf, W. A., and Prichard, W. W. (1983) The use of clay for soil color comparisons. Journal of Forensic Sciences 28(3): 773–6.

Lombardi, G. (1999) The contribution of forensic geology and other trace evidence analysis to the investigation of the killing of Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro. Journal of Forensic Sciences 44(3): 634–42.

McCrone, W. C. (1982) Soil comparison and identification of constituents. The Microscope 40: 109–21.

Moore, D. M. and Reynolds Jr., R. C. (1997) X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New York.

Munsell Color (2000) Munsell Soil Color Charts. Revised washable edition, 10pp + charts. GretagMacbeth, New Windsor, NY.

Murray R. C. and Solebello, L. P. (2002) Forensic examination of soil. In: R. Saferstein (ed.), Forensic Science Handbook: Volume 1, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle, NJ, pp. 615–33.

Petraco, N., Kubic, T. A., and Petraco, N. D. K. (2008) Case studies in forensic soil examinations. Forensic Science International 178: 23–7.

Post, D. R., Bryant, R. B., Batchily, A. K. et al. (1993) Correlations between field and laboratory measurements of soil color. In: J. M. Bigham and E. J. Ciolkhoz (eds), Soil Color. Soil Science Society of America Special Publication 31: 35–49.

Pye, K. and Blott, S. J. (2004) Particle size analysis of sediments, soils and related particulate materials for forensic purposes using laser granulometry. Forensic Science International 144: 19–27.

Sugita, R. and Marumo, Y. (1996) Validity of color examination for forensic soil identification. Forensic Science International 83: 201–10.




Bergslien, E.T., Bush M. A. and Bush, P.J. (2008) Identification of cremains using x-ray diffraction spectroscopy and a comparison to trace element analysis, Forensic Science International, 175(2), 218 – 226. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.07.004.

Ubelaker, D. H., Ward, D. C., Braz, V. S., and Stewart, J. (2002) The use of SEM/EDX analysis to distinguish dental and osseus tissue from other materials. Journal of Forensic Sciences 47(5): 940–943.


Armstrong, H. A. and Brasier, M. D. (2005) Microfossils. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.

Bryant, V. M. and Jones, G. D. (2006) Forensic palynology: Current status of a rarely used technique in the United States of America. Forensic Science International 163: 183–97.

Clarkson, E. N. K. (1998) Invertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, 4th edn. Blackwell Science, Malden, MA.

France, D. L. (2008) Human and Nonhuman Bone Identification: A color atlas. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Geological Society of America (2009) Walker, J. D., and Geissman, J. W., compilers, Geologic Time Scale: Geological Society of America, doi: 10.1130/2009.CTS004R2C. Available online at http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/.

Hartley, B. (1996) An Atlas of British Diatoms. Biopress Ltd, Bristol.

Horrocks, M. (2004) Sub-sampling and preparing forensic samples for pollen analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences 49(5): 1–4.

Krstic, S., Duma, A., Janevska, B., Levkov, Z. et al. (2002) Diatoms in forensic expertise of drowning: A Macedonian experience. Forensic Science International 127: 198–203.

Langer, A., Mackler, A., Rubin, I. et al. (1971) Inorganic particles in cigars and cigar smoke. Science 174: 585–7.

Marks, M. K. (1995) William M. Bass and the development of forensic anthropology in Tennessee. Journal of Forensic Sciences 40(5): 741–50.

Metzger, C. A., Terry Jr., D. O., and Grandstaff, D. E. (2004) Effect of paleosol formation on rare earth elemental signatures in fossil bone. Geology 32(6): 497–500.

Mildenhall, D. C. (2006) Hypericum pollen determines the presence of burglars at the scene of a crime: An example of forensic palynology. Forensic Science International 163: 231–35.

Owsley, D. W. and R. W. Mann (1990) Medicolegal case involving a bear paw. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 80(11): 623–5.

Pollanen, M. S. (1998) Forensic Diatomology and Drowning. Elsevier Science: Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Round, F. E., Crawford, R. M., and Mann, D. G. (1990) The Diatoms: Biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press.

Seilacher, A. (2007) Trace Fossil Analysis. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.

Spaulding, S. A., Lubinski, D. J., and Potapova, M. (2010) Diatoms of the United States, http://westerndiatoms.colorado.edu, accessed 24.11.11.

Vinyard, W. C. (1979) Diatoms of North America. Mad River Press, Inc., Eureka, CA.


Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1990) Method 973.65, characterization and matching of glass fragments: Dispersion microscopy (double variation method). In: Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Vol. 1, 15th edn. AOAC, Gaithersburg, MD.

ASTM Standard C162-05 (2010) Standard Terminology of Glass and Glass Products, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, DOI: 10.1520/C0162-05R10, http://www.astm.org/Standards/C162.htm.

ASTM Standard C1036-11 (2011) Standard Specification for Flat Glass, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, DOI: 10.1520/C1036-11, http://www.astm.org/Standards/C1036.htm.

Bottrell, M. C. (2009) Forensic glass comparison: Background information used in data interpretation. Forensic Science Communications 11(2), available online at http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc.

Koons R. D., Buscaglia, J., Bottrell, M., and Miller E. T. (2002) Forensic glass comparisons. In: R. Saferstein (ed.), Forensic Science Handbook: Volume 1, 2nd edn. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, pp. 162–213.

Locke, J. and Unikowski, J. (1991) Breaking of flat glass: Part 1: Size and distribution of particles from plain glass windows. Forensic Science International 51: 251–62.

Underhill, M. (1980) Multiple RI in float glass. Journal of the Forensic Science Society 20: 169–76.

Zadora, G. (2009) Evaluation of evidence value of glass fragments by likelihood ratio and Bayesian Network approaches. Analytica Chimica Acta 642: 279–90.


Compton, R. R. (1985) Geology in the Field. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York.

El-Rabbany, A. (2006) Introduction to GPS: The global positioning system, 2nd edn. Artech House Publishers, Norwood, MA.

Maltman, A. (1998) Geological Maps: An introduction, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York.

Slocum, T. A., McMaster, R. B., Kessler, F. C., and Howard, H. H. (2008) Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Spencer, E. W. (2006) Geologic Maps: A practical guide to the preparation and interpretation of geologic maps. Waveland Pr Inc., Long Grove, IL.


ASTM (2005) Standard Guide for Test Methods for Forensic Writing Ink Comparison, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, DOI: 10.1520/E1422-05, http://www.astm.org/Standards/E1422.htm.

Eastaugh, N., Walsh, V., Chaplin, T., and Siddall, R. (2004) Pigment Compendium: Optical microscopy of historical pigments. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, London.

McCrone, W. C (1982) The microscopical identification of pigments. Journal of the International Institute for Conservation – Canadian Group 7(1 and 2): 11–34.

Odegaard, N., Carrol, S. and Zimmt, W. S. (2000) Material Characterization Tests for Objects of Art and Archaeology. Archetype Publications, London.